Bronchiolitis obliterans Radiology Assistant

Constrictive Bronchiolitis (Bronchiolitis Obliterans) Constrictive bronchiolitis is defined histologically as concentric luminal narrowing of the membranous and respiratory bronchioles secondary to submucosal and peribronchiolar inflammation and fibrosis without any intraluminal granulation tissue or polyps ( Fig. 14 ) The interpretation of interstitial lung diseases is based on the type of involvement of the secondary lobule. The secondary lobule is the basic anatomic unit of pulmonary structure and function. It is the smallest lung unit that is surrounded by connective tissue septa. It measures about 1-2 cm and is made up of 5-15 pulmonary acini, that.

Radiologic and Pathologic Features of Bronchiolitis

  1. Bronchiolitis generically refers to inflammation and/or fibrosis involving (a)airways smaller than 2 mm in diameter, which often lack a cartilaginous wall, and/or (b)the alveolar ducts (1)
  2. European Radiology 2001;11: 373-392. High Resolution Lung CT, UCSF Interactive Radiology Series on CD-ROM. This browser-based learning file is based on Dr. Webb's HRCT text. It offers a wide variety of cases dealing with common HRCT patterns of disease, diffuse lung diseases and their significance, and clinical characteristics
  3. European Radiology 2001;11: 373-392 High Resolution Lung CT, UCSF Interactive Radiology Series on CD-ROM. This browser-based learning file is based on Dr. Webb's HRCT text. It offers a wide variety of cases dealing with common HRCT patterns of disease, diffuse lung diseases and their significance, and clinical characteristics
  4. Knowledge of the lung anatomy is essential for understanding HRCT. The interpretation of interstitial lung diseases is based on the type of involvement of the secondary lobule. The secondary lobule is the basic anatomic unit of pulmonary structure and function. It is the smallest lung unit that is surrounded by connective tissue septa
  5. ology. Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a histological pattern of alveolar inflammation with varied etiology (including pulmonary infection). The idiopathic form of OP is called cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) and it belongs to the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs).. COP was previously termed bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), not to be confused with.
  6. An international ISHLT/ATS/ERS clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome Keith C. Meyer1, Ganesh Raghu2, Geert M. Verleden3, Paul A. Corris4, Paul Aurora5, Kevin C. Wilson6, Jan Brozek7, Allan R. Glanville8 and the ISHLT/ATS/ERS BOS Task Force Committee9 Affiliations: 1School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

The Radiology Assistant : Basic Interpretatio

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the clinical profile, aetiology and radiological categories in children diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Methodology: We undertook a review of the medical records and radiological studies of 14 children with BO. Results: Unresolving cough and wheeze after a short respiratory illness was the commonest presentation Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a disease of small airways that results in progressive dyspnea and airflow limitation. It is a common sequela of bone marrow, lung, and heart-lung transplantation, but can also occur as a complication of certain pulmonary infections, adverse drug reaction, toxic inhalation, and autoimmune disorders Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a pulmonary disorder with a wide spectrum of radiologic features. Usually, these are bilateral, patchy, alveolar, or ground-glass infiltrates, but other presentations have also been described. We present a case in which the radiologic appearance was a cavitated pulmonary solitary nodule

Borborygmus: Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

Bronchiolitis: A Practical Approach for the General

The term bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a relatively recent term for a clinicopathologic entity that has been recognized for some time.1 The name derives from a series of cases collected in the 1970s and 1980s by Charles Carrington. These represented examples of idiopathic diffuse (or at least multifocal) interstitial pneumonia clinically that showed histologic. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia and Rheumatoid Arthritis By John A. Ippolito, Lucy Palmer, Solomon Spector, Philip B. Kane, and Peter D. Gorevic The case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and upper lobe pulmonary infil- trates and shortly thereafter developed seroposi- tive, erosive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is presented

Author information: (1)Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, England. The aim of this study was to report the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances of linear opacities that may occur in isolation or in combination with other changes in bronchiolitis obliterans. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a rare inflammatory lung disorder which was first described in the 1980's as a unique disease entity composed of clinical symptoms such as flu-like illness in many individuals as well as cough and shortness of breath with exertional activities. Wheezing and hemoptysis are rare

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was described in 1985 1 as a distinct entity, with different clinical, radiographic, and prognostic features than the airway disorder obliterative bronchiolitis 2 and the interstitial fibrotic lung disorder usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (UIP/IPF). 3 BOOP is characterized by polyploid endobronchial connective. Siegel M J, Bhalla S, Gutierrez F R.et al Post‐lung transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome: usefulness of expiratory thin‐section CT for diagnosis. Radiology 2001 220 455-462. [Google Scholar INTRODUCTION. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), the idiopathic form of organizing pneumonia (formerly called bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia or BOOP), is a type of diffuse interstitial lung disease that affects the distal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar walls [].The primary area of injury is within the alveolar wall Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia is an inflammatory reaction with a variety of causes. Most cases are idiopathic. Clinical Assistant Professor of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine Eugene C Lin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Nuclear Medicine,.

Bronchiolitis obliterans. Bronchiolitis obliterans. T C McLoud , G R Epler , T V Colby , E A Gaensler , and C B Carrington 1986-04-01 00:00:00 ART MD MD2 MD #{149} Thomas V. Colby, #{149} Charles B. Carrington, Bronchiolitis obliterans was first described by Lange in 1901 (1). Although it is a relatively rare disease, it has recently become the subject of renewed interest Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), also known as constrictive bronchiolitis and popcorn lung, is a disease that results in obstruction of the smallest airways of the lungs (bronchioles) due to inflammation. Symptoms include a dry cough, shortness of breath, wheezing and feeling tired. These symptoms generally get worse over weeks to months Previously called bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a rare lung condition in which the small airways (bronchioles), the tiny air-exchange sacs (alveoli) and the walls of small bronchi become inflamed and plugged with connective tissue. The condition is called cryptogenic because the. This study presents an extremely rare case of constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) provides the morphological and immunohistochemical features using histopathological bronchial reconstruction technique. A 27-year-old female developed progressive dyspnea after SJS induced by taking amoxicillin at the age of 10

Abstract: High-resolution CT (HRCT) can play an important role in the assessment of bronchiolitis. Direct signs of bronchiolitis include centrilobular nodules, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiolectasis. Indirect signs include mosaic perfusion, hyperlucency, mosaic or diffuse airtrapping, vascular attenuation, and increased lung volumes. Expiratory HRCT scans are considered an essential. Popcorn Lung, also known as Bronchiolitis Obliterans, is an inflammation of the bronchioles, the lung's smallest airways.1 It causes scarring that blocks the airways, making it harder to breathe. Symptoms generally develop gradually, and can include dry cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and fatigue

Bronchiolitis obliterans radiology discussion including radiology cases. Etiology: bronchiolar inflammation with submucosal peribronchial fibrosis, often seen post-viral CXR: bronchial dilation, hyperinflation, reticulonodular infiltrates Cases of Bronchiolitis Obliterans CXR (above) shows chronic interstitial infiltrates in both lungs Parametric Response Mapping as an Indicator of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Craig J. Galbán1,*, Jennifer L * Correspondence and reprint requests: Craig J. Galbán, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, BSRB, Room D206, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor. CASE 31 Clinical Presentation. 32-year-old woman with cough and dyspnea six months after being trapped in a burning house. Radiologic Findings. Inspiratory high-resolution chest CT (lung window) (Figs. 31.1A, 31.1B) demonstrates heterogeneous lung attenuation with geographic areas of low attenuation and intervening normal lung.Vessels within the areas of low attenuation appear reduced in caliber

Bronchiolitis Obliterans (BO): HRCT findings in 20 patients Youssriah Yahia Sabri a, Iman M. Hamdy Ibrahim a,*, Adriana Fouad Radman b a Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo University, Egypt b. The old name is BOOP ­ Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. The new name for BAC ­ bronchoalveolar carcinoma is adenocarcinoma in situ. It is very important to differentiate between acute consolidation and chronic consolidation, because it will limit the differential diagnosis A CT scan of the chest was performed. Based on radiological findings, malignancy of the left lower lobe was suspected. After surgical resection of the left lower lobe, histological examination revealed bronchiolitis obliterans, associated with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia Background: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), first mentioned in 1901, is a severe and rare chronic lung disease in children. BO has various etiologies and the most common in children is post-infectious BO (PIBO). High resolution CT (HRCT) is an often-used image tool for the diagnosis of BO, and pulmonary scintigraphy is an alternative tool that can functionally evaluate BO

A case of severe, probably viral pneumonitis in a three-year-old child is presented, which resulted in complete atelectasis of the left lung, and in diffuse changes of bronchiolitis and bronchitis obliterans. The case represents a variant of bronchiolitis obliterans Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome. DIPNECH. SECTION 5: Infection . Approach to Infection. Respiratory Bronchiolitis, Interstitial Lung Disease Assistant Professor of Radiology, Director of Thoracic CT, Co-Director of Thoracic MRI, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas MD Anderson. Bronchiolitis obliterans is a type of obstructive lung disease of the small airways. This activity reviews the pathophysiology and cause of bronchiolitis obliterans and highlights the interprofessional team's role in its management. Objectives: Review the risk factors for bronchiolitis obliterans Assistant Professor of Clinical Radiology Dr. Simpson is a Penn Medicine physician. Endorsed by the Society of Thoracic Radiology, the American College of Radiology, and RSNA. more than just bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome American Journal of Radiology 211 (1):. HRCT Findings of Bronchiolitis Obliterans after Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplantation Korean J Radiol 5(2), June 2004 109 AB Fig. 2. A 29-year-old man with bronchiolitis obliterans. He underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelocytic leukemia approximately one year previously

Background. There are few data on clinical, chest radiograph (CXR) or pulmonary function sequelae in children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (pulmonary crepitations, abnormalities on CXR, CT, nuclear medicine scans, or bronchography, with a history of past pulmonary infection and in the absence of other underlying pathology) Post infectious bronchiolitis obliterans can also present with bronchiectasis and superimposed mucous plugging or infection could result in tree in bud opacities in a patient with bronchiolitis obliterans; however, air trapping, the predominant finding of bronchiolitis obliterans on HRCT that can also be seen with other causes of bronchiolitis. 1. Tamara Wagner, MD* 1. *Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Ore After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Recognize the clinical presentation of bronchiolitis. 2. Be aware of the recommendations made in the current American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and. 1. evaluation of patients with signs and symptoms of lung disease but normal chest x-rays and/or thicker standard CT slices. 2. characterization of diffuse infiltrative pulmonary disease seen on chest x-ray or thicker standard CT slice. Indications for HRCT. used to detect pulmonary emboli for which specific risk factors are unknown. Methods A retrospective analysis of our lung transplantation cohort was performed (n=380). Patients with an irreversible decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second were identified and classified as BOS or RAS. Patient characteristics, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity, rates of respiratory tract infection, colonization, acute rejection.

Radiographic Appearance of Bronchiolitis Obliterans

The Radiology Assistant : Common disease

Bronchiolitis Obliterans after Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplantation: HRCT Findings Jung Im Jung, MD, 1 Won Sang Jung, MD, 1 Seong Tai Hahn, MD, 1 Chang Ki Min, MD, 2 Chun Choo Kim, MD, 2 and Seog Hee Park, MD 1 1 Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Korea.: 2 Catholic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Center, College of. Early bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation: accuracy of expiratory thin-section CT for diagnosis. Radiology 2000;216:472-7. 2. Bankier AA, Van Muylem A, Knoop C, Estenne M, Gevenois PA. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in heart-lung transplant recipients: diagnosis with expiratory CT. Radiology 2001;218:533-9. 3 Lung-transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans continues to occur commonly, especially after graft-versus-host reaction, and is a form of chronic organ rejection. Radiologic features utilizing high.

The Radiology Assistant : Lung - HRCT Common disease

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Epler GR , Colby TV , McLoud TC , Carrington CB , Gaensler EA N Engl J Med , 312(3):152-158, 01 Jan 198 By using a score of 3 or more to indicate air trapping, the sensitivity of expiratory CT was 74%, specificity was 67%, and accuracy was 71%. CONCLUSION: Thin-section CT, including expiratory scans, is of limited accuracy in diagnosing early bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation. KW - Bronchi, CT. KW - Bronchiolitis obliterans Jan 5, 2018 - CT scan showing bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (biopsy-proven) Jan 5, 2018 - CT scan showing bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (biopsy-proven) Pinterest. Me Condition Radiology Asthma Lunges Health And Wellness Organization Santa Free Organisation. More information..

bronchiolitis in paediatrics 1. Bronchiolitis in Paediatrics Prepared by malek ahmad University of malaya 2. Introduction Acute infectious inflammatory disease of the URT and LRT that result in obstruction of the small airways Occur in all age gp, larger airways of older children and adults better accommodate mucosal edema, severe respiratory symptoms limited to young infants 90% are aged 1-9. In obliterative bronchiolitis, inflammation and fibrosis lead to narrowing or occlusion of bronchiolar lumina. To determine how bronchiolar structural alterations relate to lung physiology, 19 patients with a pathological diagnosis of obliterative bronchiolitis were studied. The bronchiolar inflammatory and fibrotic features were correlated to the clinical presentation, and lung function tests

Ontology: Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (C0242770) An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a pneumonia-like illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) has numerous causes, but it has only been reported in three patients with SSc. We present three cases of biopsy-proven BOOP in patients with scleroderma spectrum disease, including diffuse cutaneous SSc, mixed connective tissue disease with SSc features, and limited cutaneous SSc that.

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia - Wikipedia

The Radiology Assistant : Lung - HRCT Basic Interpretatio

Bronchiolitis obliterans must be differentiated from other cavitary lung lesions. Sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) is used on sputum or any sterile fluid for rapid diagnosis and is positive for mycobacteria RESULTS: Mean lung attenuation was significantly lower in patients who developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome within 1 year after the CT study (−837 HU ± 3) than in patients with persistent normal lung function (−812 HU ± 3, P < .001). With an optimal threshold, sensitivity was 69%, specificity was 71%, and accuracy was 84% Flowers JR, Clunie G, Burke M, et al. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: the clinical and radiologic features of seven cases and a review of the literature. Clin Radiol 1992;45: 371-377 Froudarakis M, Bouros D, Loire R, et al. BOOP presenting with hemoptysis and multiple cavitary nodules

Bronchiolitis obliterans is a rare and dangerous condition seen in adults. This disease causes scarring in the bronchioles. This blocks the air passages creating an airway obstruction that can't. SWYER-JAMES SYNDROME (SYS) Also known as the unilateral hyperlucent lung or Macleod's syndrome. It is an uncommon disease that is considered to be an acquired lesion that follows a number of lung insults, usually in infancy or childhood. The condition typically follows a lower respiratory tract infection in infancy or childhood


Bronchiolitis Obliterans is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings).Descriptors are arranged in a hierarchical structure, which enables searching at various levels of specificity Background: Computed tomographic (CT) scanning may enable earlier diagnosis of chronic lung allograft dysfunction than forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). A study was undertaken to determine intra-observer and inter-observer agreement of composite and air trapping CT scores, to examine the association of FEV1 with the composite and air trapping CT score, and to relate the baseline.

Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia Radiology Reference

Bronchiolitis commonly refers to an acute episode of obstructive lower airway disease caused by a viral infection in infants younger than 24 months of age. The peak incidence of severe disease occurs between 2 and 6 months of age. Approximately 1% of infants in the first 12 months of life are hospitalized with bronchiolitis, accounting for more. May be migratory and wax and wane over weeks to months. More common in immunocompetent compared to immunocompromised patients. Presence of consolidation associated with greater likelihood of partial or complete response to treatment. Multiple pulmonary nodules (10%) < 5 mm diameter (40%), > 5 mm diameter (60%) May have air-bronchograms Abstract In 50 of 94 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans we found no apparent cause or associated disease, and the bronchiolitis obliterans occurred with patchy organizing pneumonia. Histologic.

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in popcorn production

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome - Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the predominant phenotype of CLAD and presents clinically as obstructive lung disease detected as a decline in FEV 1. When histopathology is available to confirm obliterative fibrosis of the small airways, the term bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is used Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), formerly known as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), is an inflammation of the bronchioles (bronchiolitis) and surrounding tissue in the lungs. It is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.. It is often a complication of an existing chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, or it can be a side. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the main and late chronic complication after lung transplantation. It remains a major impediment to long-term outcome. Unfortunately, the survival rate of lung transplant recipients lags behind that of other organ transplant recipients, and BOS accounts for more than 30% of all mortality after the. Part of the highly regarded Specialty Imaging series, this fully updated second edition by Drs. Santiago Martínez-Jiménez, Melissa L. Rosado-de-Christenson, and Brett W. Carter, reflects the many recent changes in HRCT diagnostic interpretation. An easy-to-read bulleted format and state of the art imaging examples guide you step-by-step through every aspect of thin-section CT and HRCT in the.

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and rheumatoid arthritis Author links open overlay panel DO John A. Ippolito ( Fellow in Rheumatology ) 1 MD Lucy Palmer ( Assistant Professor of Medicine ) 1 MD Solomon Spector ( Assistant Professor of Clinical Radiology ) 1 MD Philip B. Kane ( Associate Professor of Pathology ) 1 MD Peter D. As a radiology assistant, you can expect to earn anywhere from $60,000 to $80,000 annually as a starting salary. According to the American Society of Radiologic Technologists , the average salary for all radiology assistants overall is $102,972, so as you can see, in this field, you can easily earn a six-figure salary

6.1. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is currently the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality post-allogeneic HSCT [44]. Clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), in addition to one other distinctive manifestation of cGVHD, i Bronchiolitis Obliterans . All; 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (507) Alopecia Areata (266) Ataxia Telangiectasia (606) Bronchiolitis Obliterans (649) Chronic Granulomatous Disease (459) Common Variable Immunodeficiency (486) Cryoglobulinemia (302) Familial Mediterranean Fever (610) Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (938 Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome. link. Bookmarks (0) Chest. Diagnosis. Airway Diseases. Emphysema and Small Airway Diseases. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrom Bronchiolitis obliterans in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 2008; 20: 272-8. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282ff62e9 Crossref Medline ISI, Google Scholar. 3 Zhang L, , Irion K, , da Silva Porto N, , Abreu e Silva F. High-resolution computed tomography in pediatric patients with postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans. J Thorac Imaging 1999; 14: 85-9 Improvement of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans after intravenous pulse methylprednisolone therapy (IPMT). (a) The pre-treatment CT image of a 1-year-old, male child shows multifocal thickening of the bronchial walls (arrows) and multifocal lower-density areas of air trapping, primarily in the paramediastinal area

Bronchiolitis Obliterans (BO): HRCT findings in 20 patients @article{Sabri2014BronchiolitisO, title={Bronchiolitis Obliterans (BO): HRCT findings in 20 patients}, author={Y. Sabri and I. M. Ibrahim and A. Radman}, journal={The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear medicine}, year={2014}, volume={45}, pages={69-73} The Radiology Information System was searched for the term air trapping from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010, identifying a total of 1,295 examinations. This large number of cases of bronchiolitis obliterans/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is primarily due to lung and bone marrow transplant patients that accounted for 26 of 32. Rapidly progressive bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP). Department of Radiology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel. BMJ Case Reports, 02 Feb 2009, 2009 DOI: 10.1136/bcr.06.2008.0083 PMID: 21686938 PMCID: PMC3028243. Free to read. Bronchiolitis Obliterans (BO/BOS)Bronchiolitis Obliterans (BO/BOS) Clinical presentation and diagnosis: Nonspecific injury affecting mainly small airways (asthma like syndrome) Patients ppg yp,yg,gresent with gradual onset of dyspnea, dry cough, wheezing. Fever is distinctly uncommon. Onset: >3 months to 10 yrs post HCT, median 1 yea Bronchiolitis is a general term used to describe non-specific inflammatory injury that primarily affects the small airways and generally limits the extent to interstice. In the adult clinic, conventional and high-resolution radiology and respiratory functional studies are suggestive of the diagnosis but the etiology usually requires tissue

Boop Lung Disease Symptoms - Asthma Lung Disease

Bronchiolitis obliterans occurs as the result of a variety of exposures or infections. Common causes include viral infections such as adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus, connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inhalation of fumes of substances such as diacetyl or ammonia, and a variety of other exposures. [ 12 Multicenter evaluation of parametric response mapping as an indicator of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Guang-Shing Cheng , Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washingto The search terms included lung transplantation, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and terms specific to management options considered in the clinical questions. A total of 10,031 manuscripts were identified using the electronic searches. Relevant publications were selected by committee members using pre-specified inclusion criteria, and the. Bronchiolitis obliterans/ bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome† 11 (14)‡ Unspecified obstructive disease 3 (4) Asthma 2 (3)* Other 5 (7)x *One patient had both asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. †Excluding traction bronchiectasis. ‡Eight lung transplants, one idiopathic, one rheumatoid arthritis. xOne each of Swyer-James.