Home

Hemorrhagic brain metastases (mnemonic)

Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases Radiology Reference

Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases Dr Ian Bickle ◉ and Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard ◉ ◈ et al. Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases are considered to represent between 3-14% of all cerebral metastases (cf. 1-3% of gliomas are hemorrhagic). These classically originate from The patient was known for renal cell carcinoma and this is a typical example of hemorrhagic metastases. Case Discussion Primary malignancies responsible for hemorrhagic metastases can be remembered using this mnemonic

Hemorrhagic brain metastases Radiology Case

Brain metastases, melanoma — Clinical MR

Mnemonics: Pathology: Metastasis to Brain: Metastasis to Brain: Posted by alam2033 on 30-Apr-2006: 8272 people have seen this mnemonic. Print mnemonic | Add comment | Send mnemonic to friend | Add a Mnemonic: 15 people have rated this mnemonic: 4.06/10 The DDx for hemorrhagic brain mets are MR CT BB (see mnemonic): melanoma: melanoma metastases to brain renal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma thyroid carcinoma even though uncommonly hemorrhagic, bronchogenic (lung) and breast mets make the DD.. Diagnosis: Multiple hemorrhagic intracranial metastases from primary lung carcinoma Metastatic spread to the brain is usually arterial, although less commonly spread via the Batson venous (pelvic, GI tumors) may occur. Most metastatic lesions are well-demarcated and tend to cluster at the gray-white matter junction Hemorrhagic brain metastasis is not uncommon and requires the differential diagnosis from primary hemorrhagic brain tumors (most commonly, glioblastoma). Most commonly known hemorrhagic tumors are melanoma, renal cell, chorio, thyroid, breast and bronchogenic carcinomas (mnemonic MR CT BB) 1 Introduction Hemorrhagic brain metastasis (BM) from lung cancer manifests as multiple lesions with large edema and an irregular shape. The presence of both hemorrhagic lesions and non-hemorrhagic lesions in patients with multiple metastases is rare

Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases Radiology Case

A brain bleed A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either a brain aneurysm that bursts or a May also result from trauma and metastatic disease (not considered a stroke) reducing the proportion of strokes missed using the FAST mnemonic. Stroke, 48, 479-481. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.01516 1. Introduction. Hemorrhagic stroke is responsible for 15% of all strokes occurring annually in the United States and has a high mortality rate of 29% [].About two-thirds of these strokes are intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and one-third are subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for which neuroimaging forms the mainstay in diagnosis; as history, clinical symptoms and signs are often nonspecific but. Intracranial hemorrhage means accumulation of blood inside the skull. It can occur due to head injury or spontaneously. In USA, traumatic head injury is the 2nd-leading cause of death. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage is a type of stroke that accounts for about 1 in 10 of all strokes in the United States The most common hemorrhagic neoplasms in the brain are GBM, metastasis, and oligodendroglioma . On MR, the tumor nidus commonly shows T1 and T2 prolongation (dark on T1WI and bright on T2WI) compared to gray matter ( Fig. 5.6 ) See the entry for differential diagnosis of delirium (acute change in mental status). It's more detailed and includes a differential that applies for this entry. Vascular - stroke, TIA, subarachnoid hemorrhage Infectious + inflammation- meningitis, encephalitis, sepsis Neoplastic - primary brain tumor or metastasis Drugs - narcotics, alcohol intoxication or withdrawal Iatrogenic.

1-3% of gliomas are hemorrhagic). Hematogenous metastases are usually bilateral and manifest with randomly distributed nodules in the outer third of the lower lung zones. Radiographics. (2012) Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences. The patient is an elderly female, suspected case of Lung Cancer, presented with altered sensorium. Metastases. Also note hypodense surrounding edema. Thoracic. The second B in our mnemonic is for blood. A brain CT should be carefully inspected for the presence of subarachnoid, epidural, subdural, and intraparenchymal blood using brain windows. Multiple hemorrhage types may coexist. On noncontrast head CT, acute hemorrhage appears hyperdense (brighter or whiter) compared with brain tissue Appreciating the significance of an imaging finding is as important as its recognition, and normality on a radiograph is a function of many factors, including age, body habitus and composition, radiograph or computed tomography (CT) image quality, and position. Experience and practice leads to both sensitivity in detecting subtle. Many must-not-miss diagnoses manifest as a secondary headache. Though the DDx list is quite large, the pertinent questions that must be asked on history can be remembered using the mnemonic SNOOP MEETS Pregnancy 1, 2 Below you'll find the cues associated with each letter, the symptoms they are associated with, and the differential diagnosis for some of those symptoms

Brain metastasis Radiology Case Radiopaedia

Sarcoid, Sellar lesion (pituitary) Aneurysm, Arachnoid cyst. Teratoid lesions (e.g. germ cell tumors, dermoid, epidermoid) Craniopharyngioma, Chordoma, Rathke cleft cyst. Hypothal glioma, Hamartoma of tuber cinerium, Histiocytosis. Meningioma, Metastasis. Optic nerve glioma. Eosinophilic granuloma. Papillary necrosis (causes in order of incidence Brain Metastasis from testicular choriocarcinoma Discussion (Related Text) Primary malignancies responsible for hemorrhagic metastases can be remembered using this mnemonic : Primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases (MR CT BB): • M - melanoma • R - renal cell carcinoma • C - choricarcinoma • T - thyroid carcinoma. Below is an example of how you could use the VINDICATE mnemonic to generate a thorough, systematic, and organized differential: V ascular - stroke, TIA, subarachnoid hemorrhage. I nfectious - meningitis, encephalitis, sepsis. N eoplastic - primary brain tumor or metastasis. D egenerative - Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease.

2 Brain Radiology Ke

Gradient Echo (T2*) (GRE) sequences show hemorrhage as black since it is a sort of susceptibility artefact. It also exaggerates the volume of bleeding (blooming artefact). You may also check: Neonatal Intraventricular Hemorrhage Hemorrhagic Choroid Plexus Cyst Late Subacute Hemorrhage on DWI Hemorrhagic Brain Metastases The mnemonic : MR.THAMPA What does it help in remembering : It helps us in remembering the differential diagnosis for a ring enhancing lesion on CT Brain. Expand it : M = Metastatic tumors R = Radiation necrosis T = Tuberculoma H = Hematoma A = Aneurysm M = Multiple Sclerosis P = Primary Brain Tumor A = Abscess. To put it in a textbook way Pituitary tumor/hemorrhage. Brain metastasis. Infectious. Meningoencephalitis. Cerebritis and brain abscess. Cervicomedullary lesions. Chiari malformation. Foramen magnum meningioma. Acoustic neuroma. Other. CSF leak/intracranial hypotension. Intracranial hypertension. Dural and leptomeningeal diseas Start studying Mnemonics (Dr. Martin's & others). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

AEIOU-TIPS is a mnemonic acronym used by some medical professionals to recall the possible causes for altered mental status.Medical literature discusses its utility in determining differential diagnoses in various special populations presenting with altered mental status including infants, children, adolescents, and the elderly. The mnemonic also frequently appears in textbooks and reference. Consequences of renal failure. MAD HUNGER. Metabolic Acidosis. Dyslipidemia (especially increased triglycerides) Hyperkalemia. Uremia=increased BUN and creatinine-->nausea and anorexia, pericarditis, asterixis, encephalopathy, platelet dysfunction. Na+/H2O retention (CHF, pulmonary edema, HTN) Growth retardation and developmental delay Terminology & Mnemonics. Over 25 different terms have been used to describe the spectrum of cognitive impairment in the ICU including: ICU psychosis, ICU syndrome, acute confusional state, septic encephalopathy and acute brain failure. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) officially defines delirium as a. Start studying Step 1 Mnemonics. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. (hemorrhagic) infarcts occur in loose tissues with collaterals (liver, lungs, intestine) following reperfusion --> damage by free radicals. Metastases to brain (# metastases = # primary brain tumors): Lung, Breast.

Brain tumours. Main article: Neuropathology tumours. Tumours are a big part of neuropathology. The most common brain tumour (in adults) is a metastasis. The most common primary tumours originating in the brain (in adults) are gliomas. More than 50% of these are classified as glioblastoma which has a horrible prognosis Hemorrhagic Metastasis (1) Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis (1) Hepatic Adenoma (1) Hepatic Encephalopathy (1) Hepatobiliary (3) Hepatocellular Adenoma (1) Hepatocellular carcinoma (1) Hiatus Hernia (1) Hibernomas (1) HIE (1) Hip Joint (2) Histological Diagnosis by Imaging (1) HSG (1) Huntingtons Disease (1) Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis (1. Hemorrhagic strokes make up about 13 % of stroke cases. They're caused by a weakened vessel that ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain. The blood accumulates and compresses the surrounding brain tissue. The two types of hemorrhagic strokes are intracerebral (within the brain) hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage Metastases, Parenchymal Often significant vasogenic edema Gray-white matter junction typical GRE/SWI: Blooms if hemorrhage present Generally does not restrict on DWI - Exception: Densely cellular metastases may restrict 50% are solitary; 20% have 2 metastases; 30% of patients have 3 or more Metastases represent at least 50% of all brain.

Medicowesome: Pathology brain tumors mnemoni

Hemorrhagic metastases or melanoma lesions are hyperintense on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted images, mucinous adenocarcinoma may be hypointense, owing to calcification; hemorrhagic metastases may be hypointense, owing to the chronic breakdown of blood products A: The location and the fact that it is a number of weeks since onset suggests that this represents a subacute infarct of haemorrhage. A: The differential is that of a peripherally enhancing lesion and includes GBM, metastasis, radiation necrosis and demyelination although the last two are very unlikely given the history and age Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please review leptomeningeal metastases (brain) for a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiolo..

Hypervascular metastases (mnemonic) Radiology Reference

Metastasis to Brain Mnemonics - RxP

  1. Metastatic brain cancer, also called secondary brain cancer, occurs when cancer spreads to the brain from another part of the body. It's about ten times more common than primary brain cancer, which starts in the brain.. Each year, about 100,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with brain metastases
  2. Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Most common cause of Intracerebral Hemorrhage? ____ % of all brain tumors represent metastases. 50. THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... Patho Exam 2 Most Common/Characteristics. 82 terms. Mnemonic HNSCASPER. 9 terms. mmpl032. Syncopal Red Flags. 7 terms. mmpl032. San Francisco Syncope Rule - CHESS
  3. Wilm's tumor is the most common primary renal tumor of childhood. Origin: Embryonic nephrogenic (mesodermal) cells Mechanism: Deletion of WT-1 gene on chromosome 11 Pathology: a. Macroscopic (Gross): large, solitary tan to grey color mass; pale on cut section with areas of hemorrhage; 10% are bilateral or multicentric; grossly difficult to distinguish from neuroblastom
  4. Follow ovarian veins (mainly): to the left para-aortic and the right paracaval lymph nodes at the level of the renal hilum and are the most common sites for metastatic adenopathy. Lymphatics of the broad ligament: drain into the pelvic lymph nodes, external iliac, hypogastric, and obturator chain

Headache is a leading cause of emergency room (ER) admittance. It represents the second cause of neurological consultations in the ER, beaten only by acute cerebrovascular diseases and followed by vertigo, head trauma, acute impairment of consciousness, and epilepsy [].It is estimated that almost 2-4% of neurological evaluation in the emergency setting are due to headache [] Neoplasia is also a common disease, mainly in dogs older than 5 yrs of age. Most dogs and cats have primary brain tumors, but secondary (metastatic) brain tumors are also seen. Head trauma can affect dogs of any age and size, and typically leads to forebrain signs in mild to moderate cases

3. CT scan shows no evidence of intracranial hemorrhage: 1. Prior intracranial hemorrhage 2. History of intracranial neoplasm, AVM or aneurysm 3. Stroke or serious head trauma within past 3 months 4. Major surgery or biopsy of parenchymal organ <14 days 5. GI or urinary tract hemorrhage <21 days 6. Recent post-MI pericarditis 7. Seizure at. Altered Mental Status Differential Diagnosis Mnemonic: Altered mental status (AMS) is not a disease: it is a symptom. Causes range from easily reversible (hypoglycemia) to permanent (intracranial hemorrhage) and from the relatively benign (alcohol intoxication) to life threatening (meningitis or encephalitis) Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that can be caused by direct head trauma, a ruptured brain aneurysm, or a tangle of leaking blood vessels in the brain. Subarachnoid hemorrhages are rare, and encompass about 5 to 10% of all strokes. A stroke is a serious medical emergency, and subarachnoid hemorrhage is fatal in about 40% of cases. Hemorrhagic metastases may also appear hyperintense on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted images, most liver metastases appear with high signal intensity (Figure 31-11). Lesions with central necrosis or cystic metastases can result in even higher signal intensity in T2-weighted images, whereas calcified lesions may be hypointense on T2-weighted.

hemorrhage between outer table and periosteum Sclerotic metastasis: prostate carcinoma most common but can also be from favorable response to treatment of lytic metastasis (KNOW THIS Provocative factors (suggestive of mass lesion, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage) Exertional Headache (worse with exertion or sexual activity) Cough Headache. Other red-flag Headache features. Change in Headache pattern. Headache awakens patient from sleep. Occipital or frontal focal Headache. IV White Matter Disease. VWMD reveals a diffuse cerebral hemispheric leukoencephalopathy in which, with time, abnormal white matter develops a signal intensity close to that of CSF on all pulse sequences—a pattern similar to the hypodensity seen on CT. From: Practical Surgical Neuropathology: A Diagnostic Approach (Second Edition), 2018 Jan 30, 2020 - Explore Santosh Yadav's board Mri brain on Pinterest. See more ideas about mri brain, radiology, neurology

2. Head trauma with raised ICP: Mannitol 20% (0.5 g/kg) followed by 0.25 g/kg 6 hrly may be appropriate (may cause hypotension in patient with occult hemorrhage) 3. Head trauma with raised ICP and Hypotension: Hypertonic solutions. 4. Hypovolemia is best avoided in head injury - increased risk of secondary brain injury and mortalit An atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare tumor usually diagnosed in childhood. Although usually a brain tumor, AT/RT can occur anywhere in the central nervous system (CNS), including the spinal cord.About 60% will be in the posterior cranial fossa (particularly the cerebellum).One review estimated 52% in the posterior fossa, 39% are supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

'Perfect' ring enhancing lesion which is not a cerebral abscess (lack of central diffusion restriction on DWI and relative paucity of edema). MAGIC DR is a useful mnemonic for this appearance Jun 10, 2018 - Explore Sa Jam's board The brain on Pinterest. See more ideas about radiology, neurology, mri brain Apr 10, 2016 - A cerebrovascular accident (CVA), an ischemic stroke or brain attack, is a sudden loss of brain function resulting from a disruption of the blood supply to a part of the brain Brain: gadolinium-enhanced MRI; Extrathoracic metastasis (bone, adrenal, liver): PET/CT is more accurate than CT alone or bone scans. [46] Tissue confirmation of metastatic disease is strongly recommended for all patients. Tissue biopsy [47] Tissue biopsy is the confirmatory test required for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Nonsurgical procedure Articles. Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions..

Hemorrhagic metastases are seen most often with metastatic RCC, melanoma, choriocarcinoma , and lung carcinoma. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 16.3. Metastases showing sharp demarcation and typical location at the cerebral corticomedullary junction within the middle cerebral artery vascular territory Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage is a neurological emergency commonly encountered by the emergency radiologist. This article reviews the approach to spontaneous brain parenchymal hemorrhage, including common causes and the role of various neuroimaging modalities in the diagnostic workup. We emphasize the need for a primary survey directed at conveying information needed for emergent. 3- Use the mnemonic 'ABBCS' to remember important structures. 4- Finally, extend search pattern to include orbits, sinuses, oropharynx, ears, craniocervical junction, face, vault and scalp. The ABBCS System: A: Asymmetry: comparing one side with another. B: Blood:acute hemorrhage --> hyperdense compared to brain (Figure 1)

Localized brain radiation therapy may be conformal, targeting the tumor with the aim of sparing normal brain tissue, or stereotactic, typically involving gamma knife or proton beam therapy. Gliomas are treated with conformal radiation therapy; a stereotactically directed gamma knife or proton beam therapy is useful for metastases The other mnemonic I know for the ossification centers is Come Rub My Tree Of Love where the M is medial epicondyle and the L is the lateral epicondyle. Metastases, myeloma P - Paget disease O - Osteogenesis imperfecta O - Osteoporosis . D - Vitamin intoxication dysfunction of brain stem [i.e. brain stem TIA] H - heart attac Acute intracranial hemorrhage with blood-fluid level. Blood-fluid level or hematocrit level or 'Sedimentation level' in spontaneous parenchymal hemorrhage could be due to coagulopathy or when the patient is on anti-coagulation medications. It can also be seen less often in cases of AVM or tumoral bleed (both primary and metastatic), Amyloid.

In fact, 3% of patients with intracranial hemorrhage are subsequently found to have an underlying brain tumor. 2,3 In the ED setting, the presentation of a brain tumor is linked to its anatomic location and rate of growth. Many metastatic brain tumors produce the classic triad of headache, seizures, and hemiparesis, similar to primary brain tumors Brain imaging may be performed if the patient is symptomatic or if the testicular tumor is a choriocarcinoma, because choriocarcinomas are more likely to metastasize to the brain. The most common sites of solid organ metastatic disease are the lungs, liver, and brain. Testicular metastases to bone may also occur This is a list of mnemonics used in medicine and medical science, categorized and alphabetized. A mnemonic is any technique that assists the human memory with information retention or retrieval by making abstract or impersonal information more accessible and meaningful, and therefore easier to remember; many of them are acronyms or initialisms which reduce a lengthy set of terms to a single. 7,000+ Internal Medicine / PANCE Flashcards. Prep for the boards and reinforce concepts with flashcards & mnemonics. Learn more about the IM or PANCE / PANRE or ABFM QBank. Over 7,000 flashcards designed to help you learn and retain knowledge for the boards! 1,500+ medical mnemonics searchable by discipline, system or keyword Lesson 7: The CHAFT Mnemonic for Lesions in the Brain and Spine With Low T2 Signal Intensity MAJ Aaron Betts, MD, LTC John Ritter, MD, Jonathan Kini, MD, COL (Ret) Christopher Lisanti, MD, and COL (Ret) Liem T. Bui-Mansfield, MD Question 7-1. This question addresses the cause of a halo of low T2 signal about an intracrania

Mass effect from hemorrhage and edema may cause herniation of brain. • If the patient survives, the hemorrhage heals and leaves a residual cavity that is best demonstrated by MRI. Tumor Hemorrhage . Tumor-related intracranial hemorrhage may be due to coagulopathy (leukemia, anticoagulation) or spontaneous bleeding into a tumor • Use the mnemonic blood can be very bad (where blood = blood, can = cisterns, be = brain, very = ventricles, and bad = bone) to quickly and thoroughly review a cranial CT scan for pathology. • Magnetic resonance imaging offers excellent anatomic resolution and provides greater discrimination of various soft tissues than CT does Playlist contributed by: simranjit bawa. Show case titles. Case 1. Susceptibility artifact on brain MRI due to gas bubbles. Case 2. Hemangioblastoma (multiple) Case 3. Dural sinus thrombosis secondary to otogenic infection. Case 4

Hemorrhagic brain metastases | Radiology Case

Pontine stroke, also known as pons stroke or pontine cerebrovascular accident, is a type of brain stem stroke that can cause symptoms like locked-in syndrome, impaired breathing, and loss of consciousness. Doctors and therapists will work with the patient to recover as much function as possible Tumors with a particular propensity to hemorrhage include glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendroglioma, and certain metastases such as melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and thyroid carcinoma (mnemonic: MR/CT). Lung cancer is also frequently hemorrhagic [61][62][63][64] Bone or brain metastases are rare in Wilms tumor, and should raise consideration for rhabdoid tumor, renal sarcoma, or renal cell carcinoma in appropriate clinical settings. While Wilms tumor has a better prognosis than other malignant renal tumors, tumor histology is the most important factor in determining survival rate What You Need to Know . Metastatic brain tumors (also called secondary brain tumors) are caused by cancer cells spreading (metastasizing) to the brain from a different part of the body.; The cancer cells break away from the primary tumor and travel to the brain, usually through the bloodstream, then commonly go to the part of the brain called the cerebral hemispheres or to the cerebellum

The neoplasms most characterized by hemorrhage into CNS metastases can be remembered by the mnemonic MATCH: melanoma, anaplastic lung carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and hypernephroma. Most CNS metastases classically appear as multiple areas of hypointensity on T1-weighted MRI and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted. Intraventricular hemorrhage denotes the presence of blood within the cerebral ventricular system. It is associated with significant morbidity due to the risk of obstructive hydrocephalus . It can be divided into primary or secondary, primary hemorrhage being far less common than secondary: primary: blood in the ventricles with little (if any.

A brain tumor is the most common solid tumor form that may be benign, malignant or a metastatic growth from a tumor in another area of the body. Most central nervous system tumors occur at the midline in the brain stem or cerebellum and can result in increased intracranial pressure and other associated symptoms. Other tumors occur in the cerebrum. A malignant brain tumor is the second most. Metastases initially appear in the preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, then later in the lung and brain. New evidence suggests that melanoma metastasis could be sensitive to BRAF inhibitors or immune checkpoint inhibitors. 21,22. Conjunctival tumors encompass a broad spectrum of tumors Synonyms: Camel-hump sign, late delta wave, current of injury, hypothermic wave, K wave, H wave Not specific to hypothermia: May also occur in hypercalcemia, brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospastic angina, ventricular fibrillation Defintion: Positive deflections occuring at the junction between the QRS complex and the ST segment, where the S point, also known as the J point, has a. Relative Contraindications/Warnings to tPA. Only minor or rapidly improving stroke symptoms. No. Yes. Major surgery or serious non-head trauma in the previous 14 days. No. Yes. History of gastrointestinal or urinary tract hemorrhage within 21 days. No

Other Sites of Metastasis - Germ Cells - GUWS Medical

The prevalence of CNS metastases in patients with a primary melanoma ranges from 10% to 40% in clinical series. Brain metastases are present in up to two thirds of patients with disseminated malignant melanoma, and metastases to the meninges occur in approximately 30% of patients with metastatic melanoma. [] In one large series, the male-to-female ratio of cerebral metastases was 1.9:1 CT Imaging (Brain) in Clinical Practice Dr Vaibhav Yawalkar MD. 2. Imaging in ER Cranial computed tomography (CT) is an extremely useful diagnostic tool used routinely in the care of ER patients. The attending physician needs to be able to accurately interpret and act upon certain CT findings without specialist (e.g., radiologist) assistance. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of neurobehavioral disability estimated to affect 1.4 million Americans per year. 168 Of all the major neuropathological complications of TBI (cortical contusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, penetrating injury, hypoxic-ischemic damage), arguably the most. These lesions put pressure on the adjacent brain tissue causing its damage. Pathophysiology. Tumors of brain may develop focally or can be of metastatic origin. They grow in size causing focal tissue damage by pressure and infiltration. Bleeding into the brain tissue causes formation of hematoma 1. Cremasteric reflex. Stroking ipsilateral inner thigh - reflex elevation of testicle. Absence of ipsilateral reflex - think testicular torsion. Presence - 96% NPV for torsion. 2. Prehn's sign. Relief of pain with scrotal elevation. Thought to be positive in epididymitis (not reliable Meningioma (left atrium) Metastases, lymphoma. Ependymoma (4th ventricle) Subependymoma (rare, 4th ventricle or frontal horn) Choroid plexus papilloma (child, left atrium; rare adult, 4th ventricle) Colloid cyst. Astrocytoma (giant cell astrocytoma in Tuberous Sclerosis) Central neurocytoma (rare, adult) Medulloblastoma (child, 4th ventricle.