Mechanism of spinal injury

The mechanism of spinal cord injury after simple and

The most common mechanism of human SCI is spinal cord compression which continue post beat. Flexion, extension, dislocation or distraction forces related to rotation cause penetrating injuries, strains or tears in neural tissues and vascular struc-tures. Other possible mechanical effects of bone structures are ligaments or the effects related to the compression which results from the hematomas in the spinal canal [15,17,18] MECHANISM OF INJURY The mechanics of injury are related to the type of injuring force and subsequent tissue response. A thorough understanding of these two facets of injury helps in determining the extent and nature of damage. Injury occurs when the force deforms tissues beyond their failure limits 1. The diagnosis of a SCI and extent of respiratory dysfunction is based on Mechanism of injury, CT and MRI findings and the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) exam. a. The mechanism of injury helps to define the nature of the injury and addresses the potential for recovery and treatment. An estimated 12,500 spinal cord injuries occur in the U.S. every year, leaving the injured people, their friends, and their family, to cope with the aftermath of the catastrophe. For many, navigating the challenges of the health care system can feel a bit like going to medical school. Suddenly you're learning a veritable cornucopia of new terms, and may be spending endless hours Googling. The mechanisms of injury can be compression, distraction, or translation of the spinal column [ 54 ]. Disruption of local vascular structures at the site of insult often leads to localized hemorrhages within the spinal cord tissue [ 55, 56, 57, 58 ]

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Mechanism and pathophysiology of spinal and spinal cord injur

Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injury Pain. Vierck et al 160 have recently reviewed animal models of SCI with regard to potential mechanisms of chronic post-SCI pain. Evidence for at-level dysesthesia/pain and for enhancement of nocifensive reflex responses in dermatomes bordering spinal lesions has developed in SCI models involving excitotoxic damage to spinal gray matter (central cord) lesions Even with a complete SCI, the spinal cord is rarely cut or transected. More commonly, loss of function is caused by a contusion or bruise to the spinal cord or by compromise of blood flow to the injured part of the spinal cord. In an incomplete SCI, some function remains below the primary level of the injury Secondary injury - glutamate excitotoxicity. Role of glutamate in SCI (1) Dose-dependent reduction of tissue loss. Role of glutamate in SCI (2) Secondary injury - intracellular calcium overload. Injured cat spinal cord. Secondary injury - phospholipase A2 activation. Arachidonic acid release in white matter Spinal column injury is trauma that causes fracture of the bone or instability of the ligaments in the spine; this can coexist with or cause injury to the spinal cord, but each injury can occur without the other. Abnormalities might show up on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the term was coined before MRI was in common use

This is a basic video of the damage that is left behind in the spine when the mechanism such as a auto accident damages the human spine. To few doctors toda.. This study provides a comprehensive review of the known molecules and mechanisms in the current literature involved in the spinal cord injury (SCI) regeneration in zebrafish, in a time course manner. A better understanding of the whole determining mechanisms for the SCI regeneration should be consid The initial mechanical forces delivered to the spinal cord at the time of injury is known as primary injury where displaced bone fragments, disc materials, and/or ligaments bruise or tear into the spinal cord tissue (7 - 9). Notably, most injuries do not completely sever the spinal cord (10) EWS Spinal Injury Overview Pathophysiology of Injury to the Spinal Cord Critical care of spinal cord injury patients includes attempts to minimize secondary injury from hypoxia, hypotension, hyperthermia, and edema. Battlefield spinal cord injuries differ from civilian trauma. Often injury Spinal cord injury is defined as traumatic damage to the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal. This affects the conduction of sensory and motor signals across the site of the lesion. There are two types: incomplete and complete injury. Incomplete Lesion: not all the nerves are severed or the nerves are only slightly damaged

Anatomy of a Spinal Cord Injury. The spinal cord is the central part of the communication system between the brain and body. It is flexible, nearly an inch in diameter at its widest point, and 18 inches long. It starts below the base of the brain (in the neck, also known as the cervical spine) and extends downward, ending near the waist or low. In injuries where 20-30% of the axons are damaged, collateral branching is the primary mechanism of recovery. This begins in the first 4 days following injury and will continue for about 3-6 months, until recovery occurs The clinical classification of spinal cord injuries is done by guidelines given by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA).. There are 5 clinical grades in ASIA classification: A = Complete injury: No motor or sensory function is preserved in the sacral segments S4-S5.. B = Incomplete injury: Only sensory (no motor) function is preserved below the neurological level including the sacral. The overall treatment of patients with significant spinal shock and injury presents a big challenge due to poor outcome, especially in patients that are in the prime of their youth. Two common mechanisms lead to spinal shock. Regarding the treatment of spinal cord injury, the best treatment for the primary spinal cord injury is prevention

The Mechanism of Spinal Cord Trauma - Video & Lesson

  1. g of the dynamic loads and motions sustained by the oc-H ead91 and spinal injuries72,101 are prevalent during motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and have a high likelihood o
  2. Mechanism and pathophysiology of spinal and spinal cord injury. ☆. Braakman, R.: Mechanism and pathophysiology of spinal and spinal cord injury. Neurocirugía, 1991; 2: 232-244
  3. Alcohol intoxication and exposure primes spinal cord cells for injury and promotes a milieu to enhance and propagate many secondary injury mechanisms. Alcohol intoxication worsens the degree of vascular insult, inflammation and immune-mediated response, excitatory neurotransmitter damage, free radical damage, edema formation, and membrane.
  4. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes tissue loss and associated neurological dysfunction due to both mechanical damage and secondary biochemical and physiological responses. Mechanisms of secondary injury include a complex cellular response through the activation and/or suppression of a large number of transcriptional pathways in a.
  5. The Mechanism Underlying Spinal Cord Injury Recovery. While damage to the spinal cord cannot reverse itself, the spinal cord is capable of utilizing neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is the central nervous system's ability to make neuroadaptive changes based on our behaviors
  6. Mechanisms of cervical spinal injury. Cervical spinal injuries can cause a broad range of deficits. Injury to the spinal cord and nerves can lead to significant neurological impairment. Injury to the bones, discs, ligaments and muscles can cause a range of biomechanical syndromes

Mechanism of spinal injury due to caudocephalad accleration

  1. ASIA A: injury is complete spinal cord injury with no sensory or motor function preserved. ASIA B : a sensory incomplete injury with complete motor function loss. ASIA C : a motor incomplete injury, where there is some movement, but less than half the muscle groups are anti-gravity (can lift up against the force of gravity with a full range of.
  2. A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function. Symptoms may include loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in the parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the injury. Injury can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be complete, with a total loss of sensation and muscle.
  3. Trigger mechanism for recovery after spinal cord injury revealed. After an incomplete spinal cord injury, the body can partially recover basic motor function. So-called muscle spindles and.
  4. In a biomechanical study of neck injury mechanisms during simulated frontal-impact MVCs, Ivancic et al 41 observed that, immediately following the crash, the cervical spine formed an inverse S-shaped curvature, with extension at the upper cervical spine and hyperflexion of the lower spinal levels. The greatest flexion motion beyond the.
  5. imize secondary injury from hypoxia, hypotension, hyperthermia, and edema. Battlefield spinal cord injuries differ from civilian trauma. Often injury
  6. Terms in this set (76) Spinal Cord Injury. - insult to spinal cord. - temporary or permanent change in motor, sensory or autonomic function. Spinal Cord Compression. - results from spine trauma, vertebral fracture, intervertebral disc herniation, infection, primary or metastatic spinal lesions. Etiology
  7. Our data are consistent with the proposal of a common mechanism underlying the changes in SR activity and locomotor activity after spinal cord injury. These findings should be taken into consideration in the development of novel rehabilitation schemes and programs to facilitate regeneration-inducing therapies in spinal cord injury subjects

Classification of spinal injuries based on the essential

Spinal cord injuries are classified according to the degree of loss of sensory and motor function below the level of injury. Mechanisms of Injury. There are five primary mechanisms of injury to the spine: Hyperfelxion, Hyperextension, Rotation, Compression, and penetrating Injury Trigger Mechanism for Recovery After SCI. Synopsis: Study suggests activation of muscle spindles essential to promote recovery process of damaged neuronal networks after spinal cord injury. A specific sensory feedback channel connected to sensors embedded within the muscles, so called muscle spindles, promotes the functional recovery of the. Mechanism of a Cervical Spine Injury. Cervical spine injuries are the result of deformation to the cervical spinal column that can cause damage to the spinal cord. Injury to the C5 vertebrae and higher can be fatal because it may inhibit ventilation controlled by the central nervous system. In the 24-72 hours after a spinal cord injury has been. In the meantime, spinal cord injury treatment focuses on preventing further injury and empowering people with a spinal cord injury to return to an active and productive life. Emergency actions. Urgent medical attention is critical to minimize the effects of any head or neck trauma. Therefore, treatment for a spinal cord injury often begins at.

Spinal cord injury is a major medical challenge since it leaves millions of people worldwide paralyzed and with loss of sensation, cardiorespiratory, bladder and sexual dysfunction as well as pain for their lifetime. Despite many years of efforts, an effective treatment or cure is still lacking. This is in part due to lack of full understanding. After spinal cord injury, several different kinds of urinary problems can result, depending on the level of injury and which nerves and reflexes have been disrupted. Bladder and sphincter muscles may be weak, overactive or poorly coordinated. Essentially, two basic problems occur. Filling problems (incontinence or leaking) occur when the.

Managing Bradycardia After Spinal Cord Injury. Treatments for bradycardia focus on restoring a normal heart rate. Generally, atropine will be prescribed to reduce the influence of the vagus nerve, which causes the heart rate to rise. Other treatments for bradycardia include the use of IV fluids to increase volume in the blood vessels or the use. Mechanism of Injury. The mechanism of injury is the earliest component of the Primary Survey. It assists you in establishing both the safety of the scene and guides the remainder of the primary survey. The seriousness of the mechanism of injury is a significant clue as to the potential seriousness of the patient's actual injuries, be they.

Spinal cord injury. occurs when the axons of the spinal cord are damaged. Anatomy of spinal cord. 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae. Tetraplegia vs. Paraplegia. paralysis of arms, trunk muscles vs. paralysis of legs and some trunk muscles. Incidence article has cataloged over twenty five identified secondary mechanisms of injury in the spinal cord in an open access portal, and is particularly versatile for starters in spinal cord injury research Changes in the flow of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF; e.g., hydrocephalus) Brain Regions Commonly Affected in TBI Coup injury -- damage occurring at the point of head trauma impact (e.g., where the head hit the ground in a fall) as the brain slides forward within the skull and impacts the inside of the skull Trigger mechanism for recovery after spinal cord injury revealed. Sensory nerve terminals (orange) of a muscle spindle. Credit: University of Basel, Biozentrum. After an incomplete spinal cord.

Spinal injury: assessment and initial managemen

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating medical condition affecting up to 52.5 individuals per million people in North America alone. 1 In addition to the motor and sensory deficits associated. MECHANISMS OF HYPERFLEXION CERVICAL SPINE INJURY. the occipital condyle with respect to T1 body was the most critical variable which influenced the loading condition and injury outcome. The spinal cord pressures were consistent with the severity of joint disruption and load magnitude. The average moment magnitudes for minor injuries were 52. Mechanism. Traumatic spinal cord injury has historically been a disease of young adults. In the 1970s, the average age at injury was just over 28 years old, with most cases occurring between 16 and 30 years old. However, and in the past 3 decades, the average age of spinal cord injury has now increased to 40 years of age..

High-flow priapism is typically caused by injury; injury can be to the perineum 1 or to the spinal cord. 3 Other causes of spinal cord dysfunction including spinal stenosis, 10 sacral tumours, 7. Whereas the mechanism of injury of extreme flexion with the fulcrum occurring on the anterior column is the same across all Chance fractures, the segment of spinal stabilization may have prevented further injury to this individual Minocycline targets multiple secondary injury mechanisms in traumatic spinal cord injury Neural Regeneration Research, Vol. 12, No. 5 Topiramate as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model of spinal cord injury Identify the mechanisms of injury to the spinal column which may result in spinal cord and/or brain injury. Differentiate between the cervical and the thoracic and lumbar (TL) spinal column injury classifications. Relate the clinical presentation of the acute SCI patient in terms of the American Spinal Injury Association Scale (ASIA) Chronic pain is common in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. An assessment of whether this pain is unrelated or related directly to the spinal injury or the compensatory mechanisms is important. A multidisciplinary approach to the management is recommended

Spinal Cord Injury often affects the urinary system and leads to bladder dysfunction or neurogenic bladder. Neurogenic bladder is when bladder control is affected due to the brain, spinal cord, or nerve complications. The 3 areas of the Central Nervous System that control bladder function are Opioid analgesics represent one of the most effective drugs for treating moderate to severe pain associated with spinal cord injury. Strong-agonist opioids such as morphine remain the most popular drugs used to treat severe pain due to their high affinity for mu-receptors located in the CNS. In the spinal cord, opioids act on specific receptors. Two distinct mechanisms might account for the presence of 'central' Schwann cells: peripheral Schwann cells might enter the spinal cord as a result of injury to the transition zone between PNS/CNS and/or they may be derived from CNS-resident oligodendrocyte precursors by (trans)-differentiation ( Sims et al., 1998 ; Jasmin et al., 2000.

Why understanding what Mechanism of Injury really is will provide the foundation necessary to all injury understanding. Course summary. Available credit: 1.00 He is a published spinal ligament injury researcher and developer of Smart Injury Doctors® and Smart Injury Lawyers® the first online spinal ligament injury training programs. Objective . The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of the Chinese herbal formula Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD), which is commonly used to treat nerve injuries, in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) using a network pharmacology method. Methods . BYHWD-related targets were obtained by mining the TCMSP and BATMAN-TCM databases, and SCI-related targets were. Different rates of injury progression at specific regions of the spinal cord may provide insight into the pathologies that are initiated by specific SCI mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal progression of injury at specific tracts within the white matter, for time-points of 3 h, 24 h, and 7 days, for. Spinal Cord Injury and Osteoporosis: Causes, Mechanisms, and Rehabilitation Strategies Can Ozan Tan1,2,*, Ricardo A Battaglino3,4, and Leslie R Morse1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA 2Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, MA, USA 3Department of Mineralized Tissue Biology, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, US

The mechanism of spinal cord injury can be sport related, but it is more commonly independent of the sport. The major mechanism of serious cervical injury is an axial load, or a large compressive force applied to the top of the head. This mechanism is more dangerous when the neck is slightly flexed, because the spine is brought out of its. Levels of Spinal Cord Injury. There are four sections of the spinal cord: cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral. Each section of the spine protects different groups of nerves that control the body. The types and severity of spinal cord injuries can depend on the section of the spine that is injured. Learn about the sections of the spine, four. Life Support (BLS) until the mechanism of injury (MOI) was established. • If the MOI was major trauma or unknown, the patient's spine was fully immobilized based on the premise that movement of an unstable spine injury will result in a spinal cord injury and that external spinal immobilization wil SUBJECT: SPINAL MOTION RESTRICTION (SMR) REFERENCE NO. 1 360. REVISED: 12-01-18 PAGE 3 OF 4. ADULT ALGORITHM: Potential for unstable spinal injury? • Age • Meets trauma criteria for mechanism • Axial load injury

Spinal cord injury - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

The early management of trauma patients should emphasise the possibility of a spinal injury with a focus on clinical protective mechanisms. Protective handling is essential to minimise secondary spinal cord injury in the early management of spinal trauma. Regular neurological assessment should be undertaken to monitor for progressiv Updated Bumpers for financial reasons.Original Info: 3 years ago, 419,288 view If you have an injury lower in your spinal cord at or below anatomic level of TH12/L1 you lose muscle tone in the bladder and sphincter. Due to the fact that this region is responsible for reflex bladder emptying, a complete injury results in areflexia of the detrusor (missing contraction of the bladder muscle) Mechanisms of injury. By convention, injury is classified into several categories —these are listed below. Types of injury • Penetrating • Nonpenetrating blunt • Blast overpressure • Thermal • Chemical • Other, including crush and barotrauma. In this chapter discussion centres on blunt, penetrating and blast injury only

Spinal cord trauma: pathophysiology, classification of

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating assault to the central nervous system (CNS) that often results in permanent neurologic impairment, intense personal suffering and a disruption to essentially every aspect of life. An overwhelming majority of patients that suffer spinal cord injuries also develop chronic neuropathic pain. The mechanism related to spinal and spinal cord injuries is most frequently reported to be associated with horse-riding falls in 829 (46.9%) cases in a total of 1769. 514 (29%) of these patients suffered an injury as a result of a horse kick, 91 (5.1%) crush, 90(5%) trample, 23 (1.3%) bite, while in the other cases the injury of the spine was.

Managing Pain for Adults with Spinal Cord Injury 5 2. damage to inhibitory mechanisms Damage to the spinal cord also results in damage to the normal inhibitory mechanisms that serve to block out pain. This can occur following local damage to inhibitory neurons or with interruptio Mechanism of Right Spinal Accessory Nerve Injury. SKU: C13002. This exhibit depicts the mechanism of the right spinal accessory nerve injury during lymph node removal surgery. The spinal accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that controls the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles A spinal cord injury occurs when some mechanism causes damage to the spinal cord that impairs the flow of these impulses. When pieces of vertebrae press on the nerves or tear into the cord tissue, spinal cord damage occurs. There are two main types of spinal cord injuries. A complete spinal cord injury occurs when no signals can be transmitted.

Spinal and Neurogenic Shock: Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Classified by mechanism of Injury Skeletal level of injury Neurologic level of injury Completeness or degree of injury. Mechanisms of Injury Major mechanisms of injury are: Flexion Hyperextension Flexion-rotation Extension-rotation Compression. Level of Injury Skeletal level. Treatment and rehabilitation of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major problem in clinical medicine. Modern medicine has achieved minimal progress in improving the functions of injured nerves in patients with SCI, mainly due to the complex pathophysiological changes that present after injury. Inflammatory reactions occurring after SCI are related to various functions of immune cells over time at. A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord. It's an extremely serious type of physical trauma that's likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life Spinal cord injury can be sustained through different mechanisms, with the following 3 common abnormalities leading to tissue damage: Destruction from direct trauma Compression by bone fragments, hematoma, or disk materia Usage. While the three-column concept was initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as the general vertebral anatomy is similar to thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Due to its simplicity, it is widely used in routine clinical practice and can be used in reports with the expectation that involved treating.

Salk Institute. (2013, July 25). Novel mechanism in spinal cord injury discovered: 'See-saw' molecule may offer clues to potential therapies in the long-term. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 3, 2021. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a catastrophic injury with potential devastating impacts including far-reaching physical, social and psychological consequences. Research on the psychological impact following the sudden onset of SCI has shown that many will develop severe negative emotion CRACKCast E043 - Spinal Injuries. This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen's Chapter 043, Spinal Injuries. Continuing in our series on all things trauma, this episode tackles the issue of spinal trauma focusing on mechanism of injuries, imaging guides, and management of various trauma patterns

7,517 spinal cord injury stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. See spinal cord injury stock video clips. of 76. chiropractic pain pain therapy chiropracter lower back pain body spine backbone 3d cervical mri spine pain spine osteoporosis neck pain A spinal cord injury can cause long-term complications, including limited mobility. Different types of spinal cord injuries result in different symptoms. Learn more here The mechanism of injury most commonly implicated in lumbar herniation involves forward bending, or flexion, of the lumbar spine. Lumbar Discs The discs of the lumbar spine are specialized connective tissue structures that serve as shock absorbers between the spinal bones The mechanism of injury influences the type of SCI and the degree of neurological deficit. Spinal cord lesions are classified as a complete (total loss of sensation and voluntary motor function) or incomplete (mixed loss of sensation and voluntary motor function)

N2 - Study Design: A comprehensive survey of literature on the proposed mechanisms and treatment of pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI) was completed. Objectives. To define the current understanding of these entities and to review various treatment options Salk scientist discovers novel mechanism in spinal cord injury See-saw molecule may offer clues to potential therapies in the long-term. July 25, 2013. LA JOLLA, CA—More than 11,000 Americans suffer spinal cord injuries each year, and since over a quarter of those injuries are due to falls, the number is likely to rise as the population ages Neuroprotection and its molecular mechanism following spinal cord injury Neuroprotection and its molecular mechanism following spinal cord injury.htm[6/27/2016 2:24:03 PM] matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)[20,21] and MMP-9[22,23]. Western blotting and immunostaining showed increased expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the injured cord More specifically, the mechanisms of generating volitional control over tonic and rhythmic patterns of spinal motor outputs using epidural stimulation after spinal cord injury are generally unknown. Limited evidence has shed light on the spinal circuits involved in posture and locomotion and their reorganization after injury, nevertheless the. Clinical recommendations for use of lidocaine lubricant during bowel care after spinal cord injury prolong care routines and worsen autonomic dysreflexia: results from a randomised clinical trial.

Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially dangerous and, in rare cases, lethal clinical syndrome that develops in individuals with spinal cord injury, resulting in acute, uncontrolled hypertension.All caregivers, practitioners, and therapists who interact with individuals with spinal cord injuries must be aware of this syndrome, recognize the symptoms, and understand the causes and treatment. Causes of a Spinal Cord Injury Spinal cord injury occurs when something interferes with the function or structure of the cord. This can include consequences of a medical illness or trauma resulting in over stretching the nerves, a bump, the bone of the vertebra pressing against the cord, a shock wave, electrocution, tumors, infection, poison, lack of oxygen (ischemia), cutting or tearing of. Efforts in basic research have clarified mechanisms involved in spinal cord injury (SCI), and resulted in positive findings using experimental treatments including cell transplantation and drug administration preclinically. Based on accumulated results, various clinical trials have begun for human SCI. Read More on PubMe

The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for a loss of functioning to occur. In fact, in most people with spinal cord injury, the spinal cord is intact, but the damage due to compression or bruising to it results in loss of function. SCI is very different from back injuries such as ruptured disks, spinal stenosis or pinched nerves However, it is this very fluid that is responsible for the propagation of a jerky head movement to a whiplash injury of the spinal cord. Mechanism of Whiplash Injury. The response of the neck to a sudden fall or an accident is similar to the movement of a whip (used to control horses or train animals). Hence, the name whiplash injury The second, rear impact mechanism with neck. hyperextension, produces mainly soft tissue damage which, although not life threatening, can lead to long term disability. In the first front loading mechanism, severe bending, fracturing and dislocations of the vertebrae impinges directly on to the spinal cord Background: Acute spinal cord injury is a devastating condition typically affecting young people, mostly males. Steroid treatment in the early hours after the injury is aimed at reducing the extent of permanent paralysis during the rest of the patient's life. Objectives: To review randomized trials of steroids for human acute spinal cord injury The role of excitotoxicity in secondary after hemisection, this compound gradually loses its effectiveness at mechanisms of spinal cord injury: a review with an emphasis on the implications for white matter degeneration

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